How to pivot multiple measures and columns in Power Query and Power BI

The pivot-function in Power Query lets you pivot your data within the query already. This comes in handy quite often when you want to further work on those results within the query. There’s not much to parametrise in the function, so the question is how to handle it when you want more than one measure/value to be returned.
Let’s say you have a table like this:


And it shall look like this:


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